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ARIFAC: Initiative Supported by FIU Ind


In the ever-changing landscape of modern finance, security is a paramount concern. The advent of technology, the shifting geopolitical tides, and evolving socio-economic paradigms have ushered in an era of both unprecedented opportunities and unprecedented risks in the financial sector. These risks, in the form of financial crimes, are now more sophisticated, rapid, and global than ever before. This article delves into the pioneering role of ARIFAC (Alliance of Reporting Entities in India For AML/CFT) in combatting these challenges through a unique public-private partnership.

Understanding ARIFAC: A Beacon of Financial Security

ARIFAC is a trailblazing initiative conceived as a first-of-its-kind partnership among reporting entities in India. These entities hail from various sectors such as banks, NBFCs, payment aggregators, prepaid payment instrument providers, NPCI, VDA-SPs, and more. The primary purpose of ARIFAC is to facilitate the exchange of information, the development of knowledge resources, training programs, and certifications in the domain of Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism (AML/CFT).

A Pioneering Step: Inaugural Conference

The inaugural conference of ARIFAC took place on August 4, 2023, in the heart of New Delhi. Sixty-seven reporting entities joined hands in this noble endeavor as founding members. The beauty of ARIFAC lies in its potential to grow further. The organization plans to expand its reach by establishing regional chapters (north, south, east, and west) and sectoral chapters (banks, payment banks, co-operative banks, payment aggregators, VDA-SPs, and more).

Collaboration at Its Core: National and Regional Chapters

The structure of ARIFAC revolves around both national and regional chapters. These chapters serve as the nuclei for its multifaceted activities. At the heart of this partnership is a commitment to share vital information, create valuable knowledge resources, and extend assistance through training and certification.

Information Sharing: Building a Secure Platform ARIFAC, in collaboration with FIU-INDIA, is developing a secure information-sharing platform. This platform will become the cornerstone for reporting entities to share a range of information, from strategic insights to tactical details, regulatory updates, and emerging concerns. It’s a hub that fosters the exchange of knowledge and expertise.

Knowledge at the Forefront: Development of Products

One of ARIFAC’s central objectives is the development of knowledge products. These products come in the form of best practice documents, typology reports, and other valuable resources. By pooling the collective wisdom of its members, ARIFAC aims to create a repository of knowledge that can shape the future of financial security.

Education and Certification: Empowering the Workforce

Education is the cornerstone of progress. ARIFAC recognizes this and is dedicated to offering training programs. These programs cater not only to reporting entities but also to professionals working in AML/CFT roles beyond the level of principal officers. The intent is to equip the industry with skilled experts in combating financial crimes.

Raising Awareness: Standardizing Certification

ARIFAC is not just about knowledge; it’s also about awareness. By participating in this alliance, reporting entities can contribute to standardizing certifications in the AML/CFT domain. This ensures that professionals across the industry are well-equipped to handle evolving threats.

Facing Modern Challenges with Modern Solutions

The challenges in the financial sector are unlike anything we’ve seen before. Rapid technological advancements, shifting global dynamics, and a changing economic landscape have made combating financial crimes an intricate endeavor. The modus operandi of these crimes is increasingly sophisticated, with perpetrators often operating on a global scale.

The Need for a Coordinated Approach

Addressing these multifaceted risks requires a coordinated and collaborative approach. A strong and effective national AML/CFT regime must harness the capabilities of both the public and private sectors. The private sector, given its dynamic nature and innovation, plays a pivotal role in developing solutions that can match the speed and complexity of modern financial crimes.

Empowering ARIFAC with Indiaforensic Courses

Indiaforensic, a leading name in the field of financial forensic education, offers a range of specialized certifications that can play a pivotal role in strengthening the capabilities of the ARIFAC workforce. These certifications are not just accolades; they are powerful tools that empower professionals to address specific challenges.

For instance, the Certified Crypto Currency Laundering Expert program equips individuals with the knowledge and skills to tackle the unique challenges posed by cryptocurrency-related crimes. In a world where digital currencies are gaining prominence, having experts in this area is invaluable. This course is based on the Internationally acclaimed Blockchain Bandits.

Similarly, the Certified KYC Expert program is tailored for entry-level KYC Analysts. It provides in-depth insights into identity verification and ensures compliance with international sanctions. The study material gets updated every month. It offers video aids and printed material.

Similarly, the Certified Sanctions Screening Expert course is also a path-breaking course. It not only offers the updated courseware but also the sanctioned entity database in CSV and XML formats. This list helps the bank make sure they’re not working with anyone they shouldn’t be. So, it’s kind of like having a “no-go” list for the bank’s computer. And this course gives you the tools to make that happen.

As ARIFAC focuses on training and certifications, these specialized programs offer an opportunity for professionals to gain a deep understanding of these critical areas, thereby contributing to the broader mission of enhancing AML/CFT efforts.

Strengthening Knowledge and Expertise

Certifications like Certified TBML Expert address the intricate issue of trade-based money laundering. By gaining expertise in this highly specialized area, professionals can identify and combat the tactics used by criminals to move illicit funds across borders through deceptive trade practices. This knowledge becomes a formidable weapon in the arsenal of ARIFAC’s efforts to tackle complex financial crimes.

In a world where specialization is key, these certifications offered by Indiaforensic not only enhance the skills of professionals but also standardize knowledge in various domains of AML/CFT. This is in alignment with ARIFAC’s objective to raise awareness and standardize certifications in the AML/CFT domain. By becoming certified experts, professionals contribute not only to their own growth but also to the collective strength of ARIFAC in the fight against financial crimes. These certifications are a testament to the commitment of ARIFAC and its members to building a safer financial future for India.

ARIFAC: A Beacon of Hope

ARIFAC emerges as a beacon of hope in this landscape. As an alliance of reporting entities, it possesses the potential to play a monumental role in the battle against financial crimes. By leveraging the collective knowledge, resources, and expertise of its members, ARIFAC can contribute significantly to a safer financial environment.

In a world where threats know no borders and innovation knows no bounds, it is imperative that we utilize every available resource to protect our financial systems. ARIFAC is poised to be a key player in shaping the future of financial security in India.

In conclusion, ARIFAC represents a forward-looking, innovative, and collaborative approach to strengthening AML/CFT efforts. It harnesses the collective wisdom and capabilities of reporting entities to pave the way for a more secure and resilient financial landscape. As the world continues to evolve, ARIFAC ensures that India’s financial sector is prepared to face the challenges of tomorrow.

ARIFAC: Initiative Supported by FIU Ind

Risk Management Courses: Risk Academy Initiative


In the realm of finance, risk management emerges as the pivotal process that serves to identify, analyze, and ultimately alleviate the risks entwined with investment decisions. It is this very process that acts as a safeguard, diligently working to curtail or eliminate the potential risks that might rear their heads during the investment journey.

Understanding Risk Management

But before we delve deeper into the nuances of risk management, let’s first demystify the concept of risk itself. Risk, in the financial realm, embodies the looming specter of financial losses that can loom over various investments. It’s a stark reminder that as one’s investment aspirations soar in pursuit of greater returns, the shadows of risk lengthen in tandem. Indeed, the realm of financial products teems with diverse risk factors and corresponding returns.

The Tapestry of Risk

Now, let’s embark on a journey through the intricate tapestry of risks in the financial landscape:

Within the discipline of risk management, different categories or disciplines of risk are addressed systematically. Here are some examples:

Credit Risk

This discipline focuses on assessing the risk of borrowers defaulting on loans or failing to meet their financial obligations. Banks and financial institutions meticulously analyze the creditworthiness of individuals and businesses before extending credit.

Learn more about Credit risk in CBFA syllabus

Market Risk

Market risk pertains to the potential losses due to fluctuations in financial markets. This includes risks associated with changes in interest rates, currency exchange rates, and stock prices. Investment firms often employ portfolio diversification to manage market risk.

Learn more about market risks in Stock Market Risk Course

Operational Risk

Operational risk deals with the risks associated with an organization’s internal processes, systems, and human error. For example, a manufacturing company might implement quality control measures to mitigate operational risks related to product defects.

Reputational Risk

This discipline focuses on protecting an organization’s reputation and brand image. Companies engage in public relations strategies and crisis management plans to safeguard against reputational damage caused by negative events.

Compliance Risk

Compliance risk involves adhering to laws, regulations, and industry standards. Financial institutions must comply with anti-money laundering (AML) and know your customer (KYC) regulations to mitigate compliance risk.

Cybersecurity Risk

Cybersecurity risk encompasses the threat of data breaches, cyberattacks, and unauthorized access to sensitive information. Organizations invest in robust cybersecurity measures to protect against these risks.

Environmental Risk

Environmental risk deals with potential liabilities associated with environmental factors, such as pollution and climate change. Energy companies, for instance, face environmental risk related to regulatory changes.

The Risk Management Process

Effective risk management pivots around a well-defined process encompassing risk identification, risk assessment, and risk mitigation:

  • Risk Identification: The initial step involves a series of activities aimed at assessing the impact of various processes on business outcomes. This entails scrutinizing performance, quality, damage, loss, and the organization’s reputation.
  • Risk Assessment: This process zeroes in on identifying potential hazards and their ramifications on business conduct. It serves as the bedrock for recognizing inherent risks in the business, enabling organizations to formulate processes, controls, and measures to temper these risks.
  • Risk Prioritization: Not all risks are created equal. Risk prioritization winnows the field to identify the most severe risks. Professionals take into account the likelihood of risk and its potential harm, channeling their focus accordingly.
  • Risk Mitigation: The culminating step in risk management, risk mitigation ushers in a gamut of processes designed to stymie the perils of risk. Organizations adopt risk mitigation strategies tailored to their risk tolerance, precluding forthcoming financial risks.

Diverse Risk Management Techniques

In the toolkit of risk management, various techniques stand ready to confront the challenges:

1. Value at Risk (VaR)

VaR analysis furnishes a probability-based estimate of the minimum financial loss over a defined period. It’s a bedrock technique for assessing potential losses in the evaluated entity. Firms wield firm-wide VaR assessments to gauge cumulative risks across various trading desks and departments. This data aids financial institutions in determining the adequacy of their capital reserves.

2. Risk Avoidance

Risk avoidance is the complete elimination of hazards that could harm the organization, its stakeholders, and assets. It’s a potent strategy to deflect as many threats as possible, particularly when a risk could unleash substantial harm. Companies deploy policies, employee training, insurance coverage, and contractual agreements as shields against potential risks.

3. Risk Retention

Risk retention entails a deliberate acceptance of losses, often achieved through deductibles and loss-sensitive plans. This approach hinges on the notion that retaining risk proves more cost-effective than procuring full or partial insurance coverage.

The Significance of Risk Management

Why, you might wonder, is risk management such a pivotal facet of the financial landscape? The answer is multifaceted. It equips businesses to adeptly identify and tackle potential risks, laying the foundation for effective risk mitigation. Through judicious risk management, high-priority risks are met head-on, ensuring that financial stability remains intact.

Embracing Risk Management as a Career Path

The realm of risk management beckons those with a penchant for navigating the complex terrain of risk avoidance, reduction, sharing, and retention. These tasks are inherently challenging and demand the expertise of professionals, thereby endowing this career path with unique advantages. Consider the following benefits that make risk management an enticing career opportunity:

  1. Versatility: Experts well-versed in risk management can collaborate with a diverse array of financial companies and even secure positions in Fortune 500 companies.
  2. Remunerative: Risk management offers lucrative compensation, with entry-level employees amassing substantial earnings, often exceeding Rs. 9 lakhs in total compensation.
  3. Path to Growth: The trajectory toward career advancement in risk management is swift. By obtaining risk management certifications and training, individuals can readily aim for higher positions.
  4. Data Insights: Risk management fosters expertise in deciphering market trends and leveraging data effectively.
  5. Consultative Roles: Seasoned risk managers can segue into consulting roles, sharing their invaluable insights.
  6. Numerical Proficiency: The field hones numerical acumen, a coveted skill for prospective employers.

The Expansive Scope of Risk Management

Financial investments teem with myriad risks, making the role of the risk management team paramount. Whether a company contemplates investments in securities, the stock market, or novel business ideas, the risk management team diligently analyzes every facet, uncovering both overt and covert elements that might affect the investment decision. As such, risk managers are instrumental in guiding top-level management, steering them toward prudent decisions. In a world where risk is an inextricable element of investment, professionals adept at averting potential pitfalls will continue to be in high demand, making careers in risk management an enduring pursuit.

Courses in Risk Management

For those intent on carving a path in risk management, various courses and certifications beckon:

  • Free Certification Courses
  • eLearning Certification Courses
  • Mentored Classroom Certification Courses

These courses, steeped in both theory and practicality, offer a well-trodden path to mastery in risk management.

Top Recruiters for Risk Management Professionals

When it comes to securing positions in risk management, a plethora of top-notch recruiters await:

  • J.P. Morgan Chase & Co. (JPMCC)
  • HSBC
  • ICICI Bank Ltd.
  • HCL
  • Ericsson
  • American Express
  • Accenture
  • MetraTech Corp
  • Deutsche Bank
  • Crescendo Global
  • Black TurtleDBS Bank Ltd.
  • Amazon
  • Ameriprise Financial Services, Inc.
  • Vodafone
  • Bank of America
  • Flipkart
  • Wells Fargo
  • Ocwen Financial Corporation
  • Standard Chartered Bank Ltd.
  • JPMorgan Chase
  • Credit Suisse

These illustrious institutions constantly seek skilled risk management professionals to fortify their ranks.

Skills for Aspiring Risk Management Professionals

If you’re charting a course toward a career in risk management, be sure to cultivate these essential skills:

  • Problem-solving acumen
  • Analytical prowess
  • Strong communication skills
  • Business acumen
  • Numerical proficiency
  • Ability to thrive under stress
  • In-depth knowledge of industry and market dynamics
  • Technical finance expertise
  • Persuasive negotiation skills
  • Aptitude for data presentation
  • Academic credentials in financial risk management
  • Strategic thinking
  • Resilience in the face of regulations
  • Networking ability
  • Convincing business acumen
  • Proficiency in economic concepts
  • Astute judgment
Disciplines in Risk Management

Risk management, an expansive domain, bifurcates into three distinct disciplines, each with its unique skill set:

1. Credit Risk

This discipline demands analytical skills, encompassing impairment modeling, risk model development, and familiarity with programming languages like SAS, R, SQL, and more. A grasp of technical languages can render you a preferred candidate in the world of credit risk management.

2. Financial Risk

The realm of financial risk management delves into the intricacies of financial instruments. Here, knowledge of market rates, liquidity, market volatility, and banking book risks is pivotal. Mastery in areas such as treasury, trading, and investment banking is essential. Additionally, understanding market product information and leveraging it to minimize financial risk sets you on a solid path in financial risk management.

3. Operational Risk

Operational risk management hinges on operational and financial planning. It calls for a strategic approach to risk mitigation and necessitates an understanding of business operations. Employers often seek candidates who can proactively identify potential operational risks.

Becoming a Risk Management Professional

To embark on the journey of becoming a risk management professional, consider the following steps:

  • Acquire a Bachelor’s degree in finance and accounting.
  • Contemplate pursuing a master’s degree in risk management or business management, with a focus on finance or economics. This provides invaluable insights into the financial industry and market dynamics.
  • While not mandatory, gaining training and certification in risk management can significantly enhance your proficiency in risk management. Certain recruiters also prioritize risk managers with specific licensures, particularly in sectors like healthcare.
Tips for Aspiring Risk Management Professionals

Whether you’re starting fresh or seeking to advance in the field of risk management, tailored tips can guide your career path:

No Prior Knowledge
  • Gain foundational knowledge in accounting, business management, and finance.
  • Familiarize yourself with MS Excel.
  • Practice basic mathematics and concepts.
  • Read books on economics.
  • Cultivate the habit of reading business newspapers.
Basic Knowledge

With a rudimentary understanding of accounting and finance, you can embark on an entry-level journey and strive for positions such as security associate, operations associate, or junior credit associate. Here are essential tips for this stage:

  • Develop proficiency in Microsoft Excel.
  • Learn to build financial models.
  • Strengthen your grasp of stock market trading, investments, and volatile markets.
  • Translate economic theories into practical implementation.
  • Gain relevant experience by joining banking or non-banking finance companies.
  • Secure roles as an accountant, auditor, or financial associate, and gradually progress to managerial positions within the realm of risk management.
Intermediate Knowledge

To excel and grow in risk management, continuous learning and mastery of existing skills are crucial. Here’s how you can thrive at this stage:

  • Familiarize yourself with business metrics such as budgeting, forecasting, and reporting.
  • Learn technical languages like R and Python.
  • Stay current with evolving banking techniques, including statistical, econometric, and mathematical modeling.
  • Consider pursuing a master’s degree in economics or finance.
  • Explore financial engineering and actuarial science.
  • Pursue risk management certifications and licensure to elevate your career to the next level.

Advanced Knowledge

For those striving to ascend the risk management ladder, the following tips can prove invaluable:

  • Pursue advanced risk management certifications like Financial Risk Manager (FRM), Professional Risk Manager (PRMIA), CFA, and more.
  • Attain expertise in and stay updated on regulatory requirements related to model risk management.
  • Showcase strong organizational skills.
  • Demonstrate the ability to manage concurrent projects effectively.
  • Excel in translating complex statistical scenarios into actionable risk mitigation strategies.
  • Propose effective plans to address potential risks.
  • Master benchmarking comparisons.
  • Develop additional skills such as financial planning, fraud detection, credit risk management, anti-money laundering, and asset and liability management.

Popular Risk Management Courses

For those seeking formal education and training in risk management, consider the following popular courses and degree programs:

  • Degree programs in risk management and insurance.
  • Chartered Property and Casualty Underwriter certification.
  • Financial Risk Manager (FRM).
  • Professional Risk Manager (PRM).
  • Operational Risk Modeling (ORM).
  • Certified Credit Research Analyst (CCRA).
  • Chartered Enterprise Risk Analyst (CERA).
  • Certified Risk Managers (CRM).

These courses provide comprehensive knowledge and practical skills to thrive in the dynamic field of risk management.

In closing, the world of finance is fraught with risks, but it’s also teeming with opportunities for those who embrace the art and science of risk management. Armed with the right skills, knowledge, and determination, you can navigate the intricate web of financial risks and carve a rewarding career path in this dynamic field.

AML Risk Management: Significance in CAMP Syllabus


The world of finance is more complex than it may seem on the surface. Behind the scenes, there are measures in place to ensure that money obtained through illegal means doesn’t find its way into the system. One of the key shields against such activities is AML Risk Management, a crucial topic covered in the Certified Anti Money Laundering Professional course. But what exactly is AML Risk Management, and why is it so important?

Defining AML Risk Management

AML Risk Management is like a security system for the financial world. It stands for Anti Money Laundering Risk Management. Now, what’s money laundering, you ask? Imagine someone trying to sneak money earned through illegal activities into the regular money flow. AML Risk Management is like a superhero that detects and prevents this from happening. It’s a set of tools and strategies that financial institutions use to keep an eye on the money moving around and make sure it’s all clean and legal.

Why Do We Need AML Risk Management?

Think of AML Risk Assessment as a guard against financial crimes. As technology has evolved, so have the tricks criminals use to launder money. That’s why it’s super important for companies to step up their game. By having strong AML Risk Management practices in place, businesses can spot unusual money movements and catch bad guys trying to sneak in dirty money. This not only protects the financial system but also helps prevent activities like funding terrorism.

Managing Risk in Customer Onboarding

You know how when you open a bank account, they ask you for lots of documents and information? That’s part of AML Risk Management. Before letting someone use their services, companies want to make sure they’re not letting in any bad actors. This is known as the Customer Onboarding Process. By thoroughly checking the backgrounds of customers, companies can reduce the risk of letting shady characters into the financial world.

Key Risk Indicators

Imagine you’re playing detective. You look for clues that tell you something fishy might be happening. In the financial world, these clues are known as Key Risk Indicators (KRI). These indicators help companies figure out if someone might be up to no good. It’s like when you see smoke, you know there might be a fire somewhere. Financial institutions use these KRIs to spot patterns that suggest money laundering or terrorist financing might be taking place.

A Risk-Based Approach

In this game of stopping financial bad guys, companies don’t have unlimited resources. That’s where a risk-based approach comes in. Instead of trying to check every single transaction, which can be overwhelming, companies focus on the riskiest ones. Just like when a lifeguard keeps a closer eye on the deep end of the pool. Regulators like OFAC also want companies to be smart and strategic in tackling financial crimes.

In the ever-evolving world of finance, Risk Assessment is like the guardian of the treasure chest. It ensures that the money flowing into our financial systems is clean and legitimate, and doesn’t fund illegal activities. By learning about AML Risk Management in the Certified Anti Money Laundering Professional course, individuals become the heroes who keep the financial world safe from the shadows of financial crime. So, if you’re curious about understanding the nuts and bolts of this financial superhero, the course is the perfect place to start!

KYC Compliance in top 4 Sectors in India

Nowadays KYC Compliance is regarded as an important aspect in the banking sector. In the global fight against illegal activities such as money laundering and terrorist financing, robust rules and regulations have been established to safeguard the integrity of banks and other financial institutions. At the international level, the Financial Action Task Force (FATF), an inter-governmental body, plays a pivotal role in setting standards and encouraging countries to adopt effective measures to combat these threats to the global financial system.

As a committed member of the FATF, India recognizes the importance of upholding measures that protect the integrity of the international financial system. In this regard, India has implemented its own legal framework to combat money laundering and terrorism financing. The Prevention of Money-Laundering Act, 2002, and the Prevention of Money-Laundering (Maintenance of Records) Rules, 2005, serve as the cornerstone of this framework. Under these laws, regulated entities, are obligated to adhere to specific procedures for customer identification and transaction monitoring.

Regulated Entities 


Banks verify and obtain information about their customers to ensure their identities and assess the potential risk associated with them through KYC process. By implementing KYC measures, banks can maintain the integrity of the financial system and protect the customers and themselves from fraudulent activities.

Banks that fail to conduct KYC procedures or do not adhere to KYC requirements can have serious consequences like penalties, reputation damage, regulatory scrutiny and investigations etc. Non-compliance with KYC regulations can lead to penalties that can range from fines to suspension of banking licenses. Banks may unknowingly facilitate money laundering, terrorist financing or other illegal activities by neglecting KYC procedures.

RBI has introduced the Reserve Bank of India (Know Your Customer (KYC)) Directions, 2016 which provide guidelines for financial institutions. The KYC directions aim to establish a framework for financial institution to ensure compliance with KYC regulations and mitigate the risks. Through these directions, the RBI seeks to enhance transparency, integrity and accountability in banking sector, maintaining a safer and more secure financial environment.

For more details: https://m.rbi.org.in/Scripts/BS_ViewMasDirections.aspx?id=11566


The aim of SEBI for conducting KYC is to protect investors by verifying their identity and background, ensuring they are dealing with legitimate individuals or entities. Conducting KYC helps maintain the integrity of the securities market by promoting fair trade practices, preventing market manipulation and ensuring compliance with regulations. It enables SEBI to assess the risk profile of investors, implement tailored regulatory oversight and manage risks effectively.

KYC ensures compliance with domestic and international anti-money laundering and counter-terrorist financing standards, maintaining trust and cooperation with global regulatory bodies. KYC helps prevent fraud, impersonation and unauthorized activities that could harm investors. KYC Compliance procedures help in detecting and preventing money laundering and terrorist financing activities. By establishing the source of funds and monitoring transactions, SEBI can identify suspicious activities and mitigate associated risks.

Some entities have basic requirements of CDD or KYC but there is no specific format mandated by SEBI. Different entities used different formats and documents, to have consistency SEBI requires all the intermediaries to use the same KYC form and documents. For more details: https://www.sebi.gov.in/legal/circulars/oct-2011/uniform-know-your-client-kyc-requirements-for-the-securities-market_20819.html?QUERY


The Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002, applies to all financial institutions, including the life insurance companies. The regulatory authority has introduced a set of regulatory guidelines and instructions for life insurers and their agents, as part of the AML/CFT program specific to the insurance industry.

Life insurance offers a diverse range of products designed to transfer the financial risk associated with certain events from the insured individuals to the life insurance companies themselves. These products are made available to the public through trained agents and alternative distribution channels.

Life insurers have a responsibility to prevent money laundering and ensure the true identity of their customers. To comply with the anti-money laundering regulations, they are required to establish effective procedures for identifying customers and collecting accurate information.

The life insurers must identify and verify the beneficial owners of the insurance policies by collecting specific documents for KYC compliance. Electronic KYC (e-KYC) can be used for various services like biometric authentication. If there is any doubt about a customer’s identity, life insurers must file a Suspicious Transaction Report (STR) with the FIU’s.

For more details: https://irdai.gov.in/document-detail?documentId=750654


Telecom Regulatory Authority of India has KYC Compliance requirements in the telecom industry to promote transparency, security and regulatory compliance. KYC Compliance serves for various purposes starting from verification of subscriber to prevention of fraud and unauthorized access. TRAI aims to implement KYC Compliance  is to create a secured and transparent telecom environment that protects both consumers and the industry as a whole.

The implementation of KYC Compliance  process in telecom industry has garnered support from various stakeholders, particularly broadcasters and their associations. It was initially proposed for DTH operators but the stakeholders argue that KYC should extend to other providers as well. The primary concern of this KYC process is preventing the smuggling of set-top boxes outside India.

Further, stakeholders believe that KYC Compliance  or e-KYC measures would serve as deterrent against financial frauds, money laundering and other illicit activities. These arguments underline the importance of implementing strong KYC processes within the telecom industry.

For more details: https://www.trai.gov.in/sites/default/files/Recommendation_24102019.pdf

Demystifying Wire Transfers: Understanding the Latest Guidelines in Indian KYC

The Reserve Bank of India has recently made amendments to its master directions concerning KYC (Know Your Customer) norms. One notable aspect of these amendments is the clarification provided on the definition of Wire Transfer. The aim of this effort is to provide a clear understanding of what constitutes a Wire Transfer in the context of financial transactions.

By defining Wire Transfers, the Reserve Bank of India seeks to enhance transparency and promote adherence to KYC guidelines in the banking sector. This update is part of the ongoing efforts by the regulatory authority to strengthen the framework for combating financial crimes and ensuring the integrity of the financial system.

Batch transfer

The batch transfer is a transfer comprised of a number of individual wire transfers that are being sent to the same financial institutions but may/may not be ultimately intended for different persons.


Beneficiary refers to a natural or legal person or legal arrangement who / which is identified by the originator as the receiver of the requested wire transfer.

Beneficiary Registered Entity

It refers to a financial institution, regulated by the RBI, which receives it  from the ordering financial institution directly or through an intermediary registered entity and makes the funds available to the beneficiary.

Cover Payment

Cover Payment refers to a wire transfer that combines a payment message sent directly by the ordering financial institution to the beneficiary financial institution with the routing of the funding instruction (the cover) from the ordering financial institution to the beneficiary financial institution through one or more intermediary financial institutions.

Cross-border wire transfer

Cross-border wire transfer refers to any wire transfer where the ordering financial institution and beneficiary financial institution are located in different countries. This term also refers to any chain of wire transfers in which at least one of the financial institutions involved is located in a different country.

Domestic wire transfer

Domestic wire transfer refers to any wire transfer where the ordering financial institution and beneficiary financial institution are located in India. This term, therefore, refers to any chain of it  that takes place entirely within the borders of India, even though the system used to transfer the payment message may be located in another country.

Intermediary RE

Intermediary RE refers to a financial institution or any other entity, regulated by the RBI which handles an intermediary element of it, in a serial or cover payment chain and that receives and transmits it on behalf of the ordering financial institution and the beneficiary financial institution, or another intermediary financial institution.

Ordering RE

Ordering RE refers to the financial institution, regulated by the RBI, which initiates it and transfers the funds upon receiving the request for a wire transfer on behalf of the originator.


Originator refers to the account holder who allows it from that account, or where there is no account, the natural or legal person that places the order with the ordering financial institution to perform it.

Serial Payment

Serial Payment refers to a direct sequential chain of payment where it  accompanied payment message travel together from the ordering financial institution to the beneficiary financial institution directly or through one or more intermediary financial institutions (e.g., correspondent banks).

Straight-through Processing

Straight-through processing refers to payment transactions that are conducted electronically without the need for manual intervention.

Unique transaction reference number

Unique transaction reference number refers to a combination of letters, numbers or symbols, determined by the payment service provider, in accordance with the protocols of the payment and settlement system or messaging system used for the wire transfer.

Wire transfer

It refers to any transaction carried out on behalf of an originator through a financial institution by electronic means with a view to making a number of funds available to a beneficiary at a beneficiary financial institution, irrespective of whether the originator and the beneficiary are the same people.